view:17443 Last Update: 2021-1-18
حمید شفیعی زاده، غلامرضا مجردی و اسماعیل کرمی دهکردی
عوامل موثر بر نهادینه سازی بیمه اجتماعی در روستاهای شهرستان کبودرآهنگ
The Affecting of the Institutionalization of Social Insurance in Rural Areas of the Kabodarahang Township
Introduction Social security policies, and particularly the social insurance strategies, are awing important publicly supportive mechanisms to meet the communities’ social vulnerabilities. Social insurance of rural people in Iran has practically been conducted in recent years through the rural and nomadic social insurance fund. The widespread use of social insurance depends on the extent of its institutionalization among communities, which needs to be assimilated as a behavioral habit. This also requires proper policies, time, finance and other relevant actions to lead to its continuance sustainably. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the institutionalization of social insurance among rural people. Methodology In this study a descriptive survey has been used through a structured interview technique, using questionnaires with 320 out of 4208 rural social insurance users in the Kabydarahang Township located in the Hamadan Province, Iran. A multi-stage sampling method has been used for selecting the rural households. Utilizing statistical software, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis to describe, classify and identify the important constructs determining the institutionalization of social insurance. The content and face validity of the questionnaire have been acquired by the experts. The reliability of different coopponents of the study, have also been and its structure as a whole, analyzed using the Cronbach’ Alpha test, measures between 0.68 and 0.88, showing a reliable instrument. Results Institutionalizing social insurance in the communities, with under-educated population, needs a continuous and effective program and support. Most social insurance users were over 40 years, and it showed that the rural youth heal not been on the local point of attention. These insurance users had a positive attitude towards the Rural Insurance Fund and which means showed their trust to the government, but they had little knowledge about insurance policies and related regulation. The communication between the rural people and the insurance companies in delivery of related information has been too much. The insurance legitimacy from the rural communities’ perspective has to some extent been accepted, which is related to the people’s satisfaction and addressing the insurance users’ expectation by the insurance fund and brokers. Some of these expectations have not been addressed effectively and there fore have led to dissatisfactions. This may entail negative institutionalizing social insurance in mentioned communities. The main factors explaining the mixed construction of social insurance institutionalization have been analyzed in three main factors. 1st, the cognitive-normative factor comprised constructs such as knowledge about social insurance, extension education through mass media and group communication, interpersonal relationship between insurance agents and insurance users, and addressing the user expectation by insurance agency. 2nd, the socio-economic factor, consisted of the attitude towards social insurance, trust making, social capital, legitimacy, and requirements. 3rd one are the final factor, which is a regulative one, comprised the proper regulations and legislations for social insurance. 3rd one are the final factor, which is a regulative one, comprised the proper regulations and legislations for social insurance. Conclusion Institutionalization the social insurance needs to be taken into account in terms of the three mentioned factors. The rural and nomadic social insurance fund as the institution in charge of policy making in this subject is expected to consider these factors, especially through providing required information to rural people based on their demographic characteristics. Utilizing extension services through interpersonal communication, mass media and training courses can make this information accessible to most rural communities. These communities also need conducive policies and regulations for social insurance to address their expectation. The regulative aspect of institutionalizing social insurance confirms the requirement of ratifying the Rural Social Insurance legislation in the Iranian national parliament to sustain the social activities in rural and nomadic areas. The social capital emerged in the area based on the insurance interventions can help the communities improve the people and local leaders’ attitudes and knowledge regarding social insurance. This may need the support of public and private sector partnership to enhance the rural social insurance legitimacy. The redistribution and equality of access to the financial institutions and the insurance agencies or brokers are among the suggestions, rather than increasing the number of agencies. These should be considered in different socio-cultural aspects of rural areas and their relation with public administrations. An effective monitoring and evaluation approach is also required to examine the insurance agencies performance and to encourage them through a proper rewarding mechanism.These should be considered in different socio-cultural aspects of rural areas and their relation with public administrations. An effective monitoring and evaluation approach is also required to examine the insurance agencies performance and to encourage them through a proper rewarding mechanism.