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Abbassi, N., and Amini, A. H.
Ichnology of Miocene Vertebrate Footprints in the Upper RedFormation, Evan-e-Key Section, East Tehran, Iran
اثر ردپاي پستانداران ميوسن در سازند سرخ بالايي برش ايوانكي، شرق تهران.
The Upper Miocene Upper Red Formation in the Evan-e-Key Section is composed of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones, and thin lenses of evaporates (gypsum). The formation is dominated by gypsiferous mudstones and characterized by fining-up cycles in this area. The whole formation occurs as a fining upward megasequence, in which the sandy facies dominate the lower half and muddy facies the upper half. Gypsum layers, up to 10 meters thick, are locally observed in the basal part. The formation has suffered an extensive weathering in the region, as a result of which primary features (e.g. sedimentary structures, trace fossils) are partially obscured. In the sandy units of the middle part of the formation some vertebrate footprints are observed, which are locally deformed due to intensive weathering of the rocks. Two types of Carnivoripedida footprints however, are distinguished and described here, so that well preserved Chelipus isp. is related to Felidae. Depositional environments including alluvial fans with abundant debris flows, gravelly bed load braided systems with wide flood plains and local swamps provided a good opportunity for development of the track makers. The transverse and longitudinal bars within the channels, levees, and over-bank sub-environments were found more suitable for development and preservation of the footprints. Comparing with othersections of the formation (e.g. Qum area), desirable climate was found a major control on development of the vertebrate track maker in the Evan-e-key area.