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Mohsen Ahadnejad Reveshty

محسن احدنژاد روشتی، سمیرا مرادی مفرد، اکبر حسین زاده
ارزيابي توزيع سرمايه اجتماعي و نقش آن در توسعه عدالت اجتماعی شهری (مورد مطالعه: شهرکرمانشاه)
Evaluating the distribution of social capital and its role in the development of urban social justice (Case study: Kermanshah)

Introduction When there is talk of barriers for the development of societies, often the lack of physical capital is set as the main challenge. While the need for social capital in a condition of "stagnation and inflation," which requires "confidence" is felt more than any other capital. And it can take out of the way most of unsolved social riddles from developmental movements of the society. Considering researchers emphasis on the role of social capital on the institutionalization of social capital in urban development and management, the main problem is that there are ambiguities in its definition that one of most important of them is using the concept of human and social capital interchangeably. Purposes and Theoretical The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of social capital and its role in promoting social justice in urban neighborhoods- Kermanshah city can be. Europe development and cooperation organization has distinguished a significant difference between these two. So that the human capital includes individuals and the study of relationship between them, while institutional, political, legal arrangements, rolls and institutions that facilitate human activity is expressed among social capital. Hence, social capital, as the last treatment for understanding the social and economic problems of the communities, can be used to compensate the lack of other types of capitals. Due to the high population of the cities and the appearing of new forms of the towns in the last century, it is clear that the science of urban geography and the planning of urban spaces have to find new realms and dimensions. One of the new issues that have occupied the attention of the scholars of this science in the last twenty years is to addressing social justice in urban issues in which the city must be linked to national and international policy. Considering that social and physical capital is an infrastructure for social justice in the city, and the analysis of social and economic changes and its relation to the spatial structure of cities is emphasized in urban and urban planning issues. In recent years, the pioneers of new urban geography, study the inner structure of the cities according to social justice which is affected by governmental policies and social situation of the society. Because in modern, social problems cannot be solved only by the construction of streets and urban zoning. One of the new concepts in the field of social studies is the concept of social capital, which in recent decades is discussed as one of the most important indicators of growth and development of the social communities. Because the existence of such components in including: participation, knowledge, integrity, trust, social networks, not only will bring out the development, but also the existence of this component is the development itself. Materials and methods The purpose of the study is evaluating the distribution of social capital in urban areas and its role in promoting social justice in the city of Kermanshah. The type of this study is applied research and the method is descriptive analytical based on field studies and completing questionnaires. So that in order to evaluate the level of social capital among the six regions of Kermanshah, with regard to the definitions and the concepts embodied in the theoretical principles, questionnaire based on Likert scale was prepared. The city of Kermanshah, as the study area for this research is located in the western part of the country and in a geographical position. This city has six municipality regions and is the political-administrative center of the province of Kermanshah. In order to analyze and evaluate the social capital of citizens, the questionnaires distributed among the six regions randomly and this stud y seeking to answer to this assumptions: 1- social capital in the study area is resulted to urban development in different dimensions of trust, engagement, social cohesion and local networks. 2- There is a direct relationship between the balanced distribution of social capital and the development of social justice in the city. For data analysis descriptive and inferential statistics (T, Friedman and correlation matrix tests) and the model of Vikor is used. Research Findings The results obtained from this research show that based on the Friedman test, at the level of Alfa 0/001, there is a significant difference between the average dimensions of social capital of sample households. Among these, the highest mean rank is devoted, respectively, to local networks and social cohesion, and the lowest mean rank is devoted to social participation. Hence it can be acknowledged that citizen participation in public affairs and urban management to be low for some reasons such as urban management and offering services to be governmental, the weaknesses of local institutions and so on. On the other hand, the analysis of the arithmetic mean obtained from social capital indicators among research samples based on the one sample T test, shows that the quantity of its dimensions are close to the average level that is considered as the numerical desirability of the test case. So that this amount for the dimensions of social trust, social cohesion and local networks is evaluated higher than average (3) and for the dimension of social cooperation less than (3) is evaluated. Hence, among the four dimensions of social capital, except social trust, in the other cases there is a significant difference at 95%. The results obtained from correlation matrix shows that there is a direct relationship between all dimensions. Conclusions Also the results from Vikor model indicate that the spatial analysis of the distribution of social capital (social trust, social cohesion, cooperation and participation in affairs and membership in the local networks) and their role in the development of urban social justice represents a significant difference from zero for region 4 and 1 for region 2.in such a way that region 4 due to the long history of residence and as well as long-term activities in this region has the highest rank, and the region 2 due to its large population of immigrant and the lack of historical precedent of resident has the lowest rank in terms of having the level of social capital among the urban areas of the Kermanshah. Equitable distribution of social capital will cause to social justice in the city and social justice, especially the mode of its evaluating is an issue that despite much researches and continuous debates, still is regarded as a complicated issue. This paper is an attempt to express the manner of the distribution of social capital in the city of Kermanshah and to develop a framework for the assessment of urban social justice. Keywords: social capital, urban economic development, social justice



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