view:23581 Last Update: 2021-2-24
Hadi, M., Mosaddegh, H., Abbassi, N.
Microfacies and biofabric of nummulite accumulations (Bank) from the Eocene deposits of Western Alborz (NW Iran)
The nummulite bank from the Eocene Ziarat Formation is described for the first time from Alborz, Iran, enhancing the record of these nummulite-rich accumulations in the Eocene of the circum-Tethyan carbonate platform. Five microfacies types have been defined within the shallow-water carbonate deposits of the Ziarat formation located in the western Alborz zone. Microfacies type 1 contains the most diverse Alveolina species associated with predominance of Nummulites A-forms. Microfacies type 2 is characterized by the presence of bivalve (oysters) fragments. Microfacies type 3 is supported by the high abundance of nummulitids. Microfacies type 4 is dominated by the occurrence of encrusting foraminifera-algal with flat growth forms that are mainly formed within the acervulinids assemblage. Finally, there is the presence of orthophragminids and nummuitids represented by microfacies type 5. Microfacies data obtained from the investigation area show that nummulite banks were formed within the back, core and fore-bank palaeoenvironments. The classification method of this paper is based on use biometric, biofabric, taphonomic and palaeoecological characteristics of larger benthic foraminifera. In addition, the calculated intraskeletal porosity by the use of numerous sections and FE-SEM images of Nummulites tests were displacement of tests in order to achieve a better understanding of paleoconditions that occurred during sedimentation. We conclude that differences among bank frameworks suggest that small biconvex A-forms of Nummulites tests along with alveolinids were living in shallow, euphotic waters, whereas robust and ovate nummulitid tests thrived and concentrated in the intermediate (40e80 m) water with biofabrics in the min-scales, which indicates the influence of waves and currents in combination with wave-winnowing processes. More distal accumulations, the fore-bank were characterized by orthophragminid and nummulitid tests in the deeper part of the photic zone. The larger benthic foraminifera, as confirmed by Discocyclina javana (VERBEEK), D. cf. dispansa (SOWERBY), Assilina ex. gr. exponens (SOWERBY), Nummulites ex. gr. globulus)SCHAUB(, Alveolina ellipsoidalis (SCHWAGER), A. subpyrenaica (LEYMERIE), A. pisiformis (HOTTINGER), A. tumida (HOTTINGER), A. cemali (SIREL et ACAR), A. laxa (HOTTINGER), A. ex. gr. cremae)CHECCHIA-RISPOLI(, suggest the early Ilerdian-Middle Eocene age of these sediments.